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Record and edit high-speed videos with one or multiple cameras.
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Cameras for Combustion Research - An Overview

Combustion research plays a pivotal role in various fields, from automotive engineering to environmental science. Understanding the dynamics of combustion processes is crucial for optimizing fuel efficiency, reducing emissions, and enhancing safety. In recent years, the integration of advanced imaging techniques, particularly cameras, has revolutionized combustion research by providing unprecedented insights into complex combustion phenomena. In this article, we explore the significance of cameras in combustion research and highlight key considerations for selecting the right camera system for your research needs.

Why Cameras Matter in Combustion Research

Traditionally, combustion research heavily relied on indirect measurements and empirical models to understand combustion processes. However, these methods often lacked the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture intricate details of combustion phenomena. Enter cameras – advanced imaging systems that offer real-time visualization of combustion events with remarkable clarity and precision.

Cameras enable researchers to observe combustion processes directly, allowing for detailed analysis of flame dynamics, ignition mechanisms, pollutant formation, and combustion instabilities. By capturing high-speed images or videos, cameras offer invaluable insights into transient phenomena that occur within milliseconds, facilitating the development of predictive models and the optimization of combustion systems.

Key Features to Consider

When selecting cameras for combustion research, several key features must be considered to ensure optimal performance and compatibility with experimental setups:

High-Speed Imaging: Opt for cameras capable of capturing high-speed images (thousands to millions of frames per second) to capture transient combustion events with precision.

High Resolution: Choose cameras with high spatial resolution to capture fine details of combustion phenomena, such as flame structure and particle dynamics.

Spectral Sensitivity: Consider cameras with spectral sensitivity tailored to the wavelengths emitted by combustion species, enabling selective imaging of specific chemical species (e.g., OH, CH, CO) for detailed spectroscopic analysis.

Combustion Research Cameras

TRiCATT

The TRiCATT is a compact lens-coupled image intensifier

HiCATT

High-speed Intensified Camera Attachment (HiCATT) 

High-Speed, High-Sensitivity Imaging Camera

HiCAM

Compact lens-coupled image intensifier

Low-Light Imaging

TRiCAM

The TRiCAM is a compact intensified camera.

Dynamic Range: Look for cameras with a wide dynamic range to capture both dim and bright regions within the combustion field without saturation, ensuring accurate quantification of luminance and temperature gradients.

Compatibility with Optical Diagnostics: Ensure compatibility with optical diagnostic techniques commonly used in combustion research, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

Data Acquisition and Analysis Software: Choose cameras supported by user-friendly data acquisition and analysis software that facilitates efficient data processing and visualization, allowing for seamless integration into experimental workflows.

Applications in Combustion Research

Cameras find widespread applications in various areas of combustion research, including:

Automotive Engineering: Studying combustion processes in internal combustion engines to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

Aerospace Engineering: Investigating combustion dynamics in rocket engines and gas turbines for enhanced propulsion systems.

Power Generation: Monitoring combustion processes in boilers and gas turbines to optimize energy production and minimize environmental impact.

Environmental Science: Assessing pollutant formation and combustion emissions to develop strategies for air quality management and pollution control.

Conclusion

Cameras have emerged as indispensable tools in combustion research, enabling researchers to unravel the complexities of combustion processes with unprecedented clarity and detail. By capturing high-speed images and videos, cameras provide valuable insights into transient phenomena, facilitating the development of innovative solutions for enhancing combustion efficiency, reducing emissions, and advancing sustainable energy technologies. When selecting cameras for combustion research, careful consideration of key features is essential to ensure optimal performance and compatibility with experimental requirements. Embracing the power of cameras in combustion research unlocks a world of possibilities for scientific discovery and technological innovation.

Unlock insights, illuminate discoveries – with cameras for combustion research.

High-Speed Cameras: Unveiling Innovation and Applications

High-speed cameras have become indispensable tools across various industries, enabling researchers, engineers, and filmmakers to capture fast-moving events with remarkable clarity and precision. From scientific research to industrial testing and cinematography, they offer unparalleled capabilities, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in visualizing rapid phenomena. Let’s delve into the world of these cameras, exploring their innovation, applications, and impact across different fields.

Understanding High-Speed Cameras
They are specialized imaging devices designed to capture and record fast-moving events at extremely high frame rates. Unlike conventional cameras, which typically operate at standard frame rates of 24 to 30 frames per second (fps), they can capture thousands, even millions of frames per second, allowing for the detailed analysis and visualization of rapid processes.

Innovation in High-Speed Imaging
Over the years, significant advancements in sensor technology, image processing algorithms, and camera design have propelled the evolution of these cameras. Modern cameras feature high-resolution sensors, advanced image sensors, and sophisticated electronics, enabling them to capture fast-moving objects with exceptional clarity and detail.

Applications Across Industries

Scientific Research:
In scientific research, high-speed cameras play a crucial role in studying dynamic phenomena such as fluid dynamics, biomechanics, and material behavior. Researchers use them to capture and analyze fast processes such as the motion of insects, the behavior of fluids under high-speed impact, and the dynamics of biological systems.

Industrial Testing:
In industrial settings, high-speed cameras are used for quality control, product testing, and troubleshooting. From analyzing the performance of machinery and equipment to assessing the integrity of materials and structures, they provide invaluable insights into the behavior of objects under various conditions.these

High-Speed Cameras

High-Speed Camera

HiCAM Fluo

Cooled High-speed Camera for Fluorescence Imaging

HiCATT

High-speed Intensified Camera Attachment (HiCATT) 

High-Speed, High-Sensitivity Imaging Camera

HiCAM

Compact lens-coupled image intensifier

Cinematography and Entertainment:
In the world of filmmaking and entertainment, high-speed cameras have revolutionized the way action sequences and special effects are captured. Filmmakers use them to create stunning slow-motion footage, capturing the subtle nuances of movement and expression with cinematic flair.

Emerging Trends and Future Directions
As technology continues to advance, the capabilities of high-speed cameras are expected to expand even further. From increased frame rates and resolutions to enhanced sensitivity and dynamic range, future generations of cameras promise to deliver even greater performance and versatility.

Conclusion
High-speed cameras have emerged as indispensable tools across a wide range of industries, enabling researchers, engineers, and filmmakers to capture and analyze fast-moving events with unprecedented clarity and precision. With their innovation, versatility, and impact, they continue to push the boundaries of what’s possible in visualizing rapid phenomena, driving innovation and discovery across various fields.

 

For more information click here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_camera

Long-term high-speed recording with multiple cameras to capture in flight testing data

Flight testing provides invaluable data for the aerospace sector. This data is instrumental in enhancing aircraft efficiency, safety, and effective utilization. Ensuring the reliable capture of data is vital, preventing the need for costly additional flights and mitigating the risk of losing months’ worth of program data.

Flight test instrumentation (FTI) are those tools used to acquire, store, and transmit flight test data,and are therefore a vital part of the aerospace sector. These tools require a high level of maturity because they must be reliable and accurate. Amid commercial pressures to expedite aircraft certification cycles and reduce costs, flight test engineersto enhance FTI and data acquisition networks— striving for innovation that offers increased flexibility and precision with user-friendly control.

Among FTIs, tandem imaging devices can be used to observe the behavior of moving objects and mechanical parts during a test flight.

But, using a multiple camera set-up in flight poses many challenges.

Foremost, when using multiple cameras, they need to be synchronized so they can operate simultaneously. Such a set-up requires a software interface that can integrate multiple cameras while allowing recording set-up prior to the onset of the flight. During the flight, the system must be able to provide reliable recording and data storage.

Moreover, such systems must be ruggedized to withstand the strong vibrations that occur in-flight to fulfill aeronautical standards.

Lambert Instruments’ STAMINA system supports the aerospace sector with a multi-camera recording solution. STAMINA combines advanced hardware with an easy to use, yet highly customizable, software platform to offer a complete solution for your imaging challenges.

STAMINA is compatible with a wide range of high-speed cameras. With the complete imaging system, it becomes possible to view and record up to 9 cameras simultaneously.

With Stamina, recordings can be synchronized, and all image data is directly streamed to the solid storage, for long-term streaming. With the external Application Programming Interface (API), Stamina can be further customized and integrated in your existing setup. Through the API, you have access to device settings, recording parameters, image data, and more. Whilst the Stamina software is the heart of the system, the hardware can be customized to comply with your own standards and regulations.

Stamina is a completely customizable imaging solution that brings an answer to the latest FTI Imaging applications.

Intensified High-Speed Cameras

Normal consumer cameras operate very well in day-light, or room ambient lighting conditions. However, when you want to make a snapshot of a fast moving object, exposure-time has to be shortened to obtain a sharp image. This comes with a cost; images are much darker when using a short exposure time. At a certain threshold, the attenuation has to be compensated. This could be done by increasing the light (by using a flash), or by improving the photo-sensitivity of the camera. In high-speed cameras this effect is even stronger.

To get clear images in high-speed cameras, an object has to be illuminated with a high intensity light-source. The higher the frame rates the shorter the exposure time per frame, the higher the intensity of the light-source must be. In many applications increase in illumination is an adequate method to compensate the shorter exposure times. However, in some applications the object itself is emitting light, or is influenced by the light-source. In combustion research, for example, or imaging of dynamic phenomena in fluorescent biological cells, or low intensity PIV, light intensities are too low to record with conventional high-speed cameras. In applications like microfluidics, the heat generated by a powerful light source can have a tremendous effect on liquid flows.

To apply high-speed imaging in the forementioned situations, Lambert Instruments has developed intensified high-speed cameras and high-speed intensifying camera attachments. The special two stage high-speed image intensifiers in these products amplify the input light to a typically 10000 times higher level on the output. This makes it much easier to distinguish an image from the noise. Furthermore, the gating feature of the image intensifier makes it possible to capture even the fastest objects without motion blur.

Camera Link

Camera Link is a serial communication standard. It has three main configurations: Base, medium and full.

Base Configuration

This configuration requires one cable and has a data throughput of 2.04 GBit/s.

Medium Configuration

This configuration requires two cables and it can transfer twice as much data as the base configuration. The maximum data throughput of this configuration is 4.08 GBit/s.

Full Configuation

This configuration also requires two cables and it has a maximum data throughput of 5.44 GBit/s.

CoaXPress

GigE Vision is a framework for transmitting images over an Ethernet connection. It consists of protocols that define how to configure a camera and to transfer the image data. Every computer with a fast Ethernet card is compatible with the GigE Vision framework. So GigE Vision requires only an ethernet card, whereas CoaXPress and Camera Link require a framegrabber.

The maximum transfer speed of a GigE Vision camera (assuming a gigabit Ethernet card in the computer) is 1000 Mb/s.

CoaXPress

CoaXPress (CXP) is a communication standard for imaging data. It transfers data over one or multiple coaxial cables. The main strengths of this standard are its high transfer speeds and the long cable lengths. CXP can also power cameras with Power-over-CXP, removing the need for a dedicated power supply for the camera.

CoaXPress

Transfer Speeds

Because of its high transfer speeds, CXP is ideal for streaming high-speed imaging. Each CXP cable can transfer up to 6.25 Gbps. Our cameras have 4 CXP ports for a total transfer speed of up to 25 Gbps.

Computer Interface

You need a frame grabber to capture the data that is transferred over CXP. A frame grabber is an expansion card for a computer that captures the incoming data and displays it on the screen or stores it on the computer. Most frame grabbers offer a software development kit (SDK) to develop your own specialized image acquisition software.

More Information

For more information about CoaXPress, please visit the official CoaXPress website.

Dual-Stage Image Intensifier

In very low-light situations or when a very short exposure time is required, a dual-stage image intensifier may be required. The first stage is the same as a single-stage image intensifier; it has a micro-channel plate that multiplies the electrons emitted by the photocathode. The second stage is often referred to as a booster. This stage does not have a micro-channel plate, it multiplies the incoming photons without the saturation characteristics of a micro-channel plate.

DUAL-STAGE IMAGE INTENSIFIER WITH FIBER-OPTIC COUPLING

For FLIM in the lifetime range of 0 ps to 1 ms we provide S20 (UV) and SuperS25 (visual) image intensifiers. For increased quantum efficiency of the photocathode in the visual part of the spectrum in this lifetime range, a GaAs intensifier is available. For near-infrared applications up to about 1100 nm an InGaAs photocathode is available.

The graph to the right shows the spectral sensitivity of these photocathodes.